Practical High-Performance Liquid Chromatography, Fourth Edition

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Product Description Price: Details Of Pacaging: Paper Back The book has been designed primarily for analysts who are unfamiliar with the technique or have limited training and experience or have constraints in finding suitable HPLC method. The scope of this book has been restricted to practical application of HPLC for quantitative analysis of individual ingredients in wide spectrum of multi-component pharmaceutical dosage form with variant matrices. The book contains detailed procedures for analysis of formulations under protocols along with relevant HPLC chromatograms to enable analysts to perform actual analysis without recourse to original reference cited under each protocol.

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About the Company. Year of Establishment Nature of Business Service Provider. Number of Employees 26 to 50 People. Annual Turnover Rs. Because both the excitation wavelength and the detected wavelength can be varied, the detector can be made selective. The application of fluorescence detectors has been extended by means of pre- and post-column derivatisation of non-fluorescent or weakly fluorescing compounds.

In practice it is difficult to use electrochemical reduction as a means of detection in HPLC because of the serious interference large background current caused by reduction of oxygen in the mobile phase. Complete removal of oxygen is difficult so that electrochemical detection is usually based on oxidation of the solute. Examples of compounds which can be conveniently detected in this way are phenols, aromatic amines, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, ketones, and aldehydes.

Since not all compounds undergo electrochemical oxidation, such detectors are selective and selectivity may be further increased by adjusting the potential applied to the detector to discriminate between different electro active species. It may be noted here that an anode becomes a stronger oxidising agent as its electrode potential becomes more positive. Of course, electrochemical detection requires the use of conducting mobile phases, e. Application include the analysis of surfactant, lipid, and sugar. Unlike the refractive index detector ,which was formerly used for this analysis , it can be with gradient elution and is robust enough to function under wide range of operating conditions.

There is usually background conductivity which must be backed-off by suitable electronic adjustments. If the mobile phase contains buffers, the detector gives a base signal that completely overwhelms that from any solute usually making detection impossible. Thus, the electrical conductivity detector is a bulk property detector and will sense all ions, whether they are from a solute, or from the mobile phase.

Practical High Performance Liquid Chromatography by Meyer Veronika - AbeBooks

In order to prevent polarization of the sensing electrodes, AC voltages must be used and so it is the impedance not the resistance of the electrode system that is actually measured. From a physical chemistry stand point the conductivity of a solution is more important than its resistance. However, it is the resistance impedance of the electrode system that determines the current across it.

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However, the introduction of the eluent into the vacuum chamber and the resulting significant pressure drop reduces the sensitivity. The gas exhaust power of a normal vacuum pump is some 10 ml min-' so high capacity or turbo vacuum pumps are usually needed. The gas-phase volume corresponding to 1 ml of liquid is ml for n-hexane, ml for ethanol, ml for acetonitrile, ml for methanol, and ml for water under standard conditions O'C, 1 atmosphere.

The elimination of the mobile phase solvent is therefore important, otherwise the expanding eluent will destroy the vacuum in the detector. Several methods to accomplish this have been developed. The commercialized interfaces are thermo-spray, moving-belt, electrospray ionization, ion-spray, and atmospheric pressure ionization.

The influence of the eluent is very complex, and the modification of eluent components and the selection of an interface are therefore important. Micro-liquid chromatography is suitable for this detector, due to its very small flow rate usually only 10 pl min-I. The wavelength scaning is provided by semicircular filter wedges, the wavelength range being from cm It is not very sensitive and have serious drawback that most mobile phase solvents absorb strongly in the IR region. For example: mass detector having good sensitivity. But selection of detector is also depending on the characteristics of the solute to be detected.

Beckett A. Practical Pharmaceutical chemistry.

Chromatographic Science Series

Page No Connors K. A textbook of pharmaceutical analysis. Third edition. New York: A Wiley-interscience publication. Hanai T.

High Performance Liquid Chromatography

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