Atlas of Human Anatomy. Osteology–Arthrology and Syndesmology Myology

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Atlas of Human Anatomy

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Convalescence: The recovery period between the end of a disease and restoration to complete health. Therapy: Medical treatment. Bones form the supporting framework of the body. Muscles are attached to bones. Blood vessels, nerves and lymphatics form neurovascular bundles which course in between the muscles, along the fascial planes.

The thoracic and abdominal cavities contain several internal organs called viscera. The whole body has three general coverings, namely a skin; b superficial fascia; and c deep fascia. Skeleton Skeleton includes bones and cartilages. It forms the main supporting framework of the body, and is primarily designed for a more effective production of movements by the attached muscles.

Osteon G. Compare with the terms, osteology, ossification, osteomyelitis, osteomalacia, osteoma, osteotomy, etc. Definition Bone is one-third connective tissue. It is impregnated with calcium salts which constitute two-thirds part. The inorganic calcium salts mainly calcium phosphate, partly calcium carbonate, and traces of other salts make it hard and rigid, which can afford resistance to compressive forces of weight-bearing and impact forces of jumping.

The organic connective tissue collagen fibres makes it tough and resilient flexible , which can afford resistance to tensile forces. In strength, bone is comparable to iron and steel. Despite its hardness and high calcium content the bone is very much a living tissue. It is highly vascular, with a constant turn-over of its calcium content. It shows a characteristic pattern of growth. It is subjected to disease and heals after a fracture. It has greater regenerative power than any other tissue of the body, except blood.

It can mould itself according to changes in stress and strain it bears. It shows disuse atrophy and overuse hypertrophy. Skeleton 31 Functions 1. Bones give shape and support to the body, and resist any forms of stress Fig. These provide surface for the attachment of muscles, tendons, ligaments, etc. These serve as levers for muscular actions. The skull, vertebral column and thoracic cage protect brain, spinal cord and thoracic viscera, respectively. Bone marrow manufactures blood cells. Bone marrow contains reticuloendothelial cells which are phagocytic in nature and take part in immune responses of the body.

The larger paranasal air sinuses affect the timber of the voice. Carpal bones a b Acetabulum Hip joint According to Shape 1. Long bones: Each long bone has an elongated shaft diaphysis and two expanded ends epiphyses which are smooth and articular. The shaft typically has 3 surfaces separated by 3 borders, a central medullary cavity, and a nutrient foramen directed away from the growing end.

Examples: a typical long bones like humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia and fibula; b miniature long bones have only one epiphysis like metacarpals, metatarsals and phalanges; and c modified long bones have no medullary cavity like clavicle Fig. Short bones: Their shape is usually cuboid, cuneiform, trape- zoid, or scaphoid. Examples: tarsal and carpal bones Fig. Flat bones resemble shallow plates and form boundaries of certain body cavities. Examples: bones in the vault of the skull, ribs, sternum and scapula Fig. Irregular bones: Examples: vertebra, hip bone, and bones in the base of the skull Fig.

Pneumatic bones: Certain irregular bones contain large air spaces lined by epithelium Examples: maxilla, sphenoid, ethmoid, etc. They make the skull light in weight, help in resonance of voice, and act as air conditioning chambers for the inspired air Fig. Sesamoid bones: These are bony nodules found embedded in the tendons orjoint capsules.

They have no periosteum and ossify after birth. They are related to an articular or nonarticular bony surface, and the surfaces of contact are covered with hyaline cartilage and lubricated by a bursa or synovial membrane.

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Examples: patella, pisiform, fabella, etc. Functions of the sesamoid bones are: a to resist pressure; b to minimise friction; c to alter the direction of pull of the muscle; and d to maintain the local circulation. Skeleton I 35 Fig. Accessory supernumerary bones are not always present.

These may occur as ununited epiphyses developed from extra centres of ossification. Examples: sutural bones, os trigonum lateral tubercle of talus , os vesalianum tuberosity of 5th metatarsal , etc. In medicolegal practice, accessory bones may be mistaken for fractures. However, these are often bilateral, and have smooth surfaces without any callus.

Heterotopic bones: Bones sometimes develop in soft tissues. Horse riders develop bones in adductor muscles rider's bones. Developmental Classification 1. Examples: bones of the vault of skull and facial bones. Examples: bones of limbs, vertebral column and thoracic cage. Examples: clavicle, mandible, occipital, temporal, sphenoid. Skeleton I 37 2. Examples are hyoid bones, part of mandible and ear ossicles. Regional Classification 1.

Axial skeleton includes skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage. Appendicular skeleton includes bones of the limbs. Structural Classification I. Macroscopically, the architecture of bone may be compact or cancellous Fig. Compact bone is dense in texture like ivory, but is extremely porous. It is best developed in the cortex of the long bones.

This is an adaptation to bending and twisting forces a combination of compression, tension and shear. Cancellous or spongy, or trabecular bone is open in texture, and is made up of a meshwork of trabeculae rods and plates between which are marrow containing spaces. The trabecular meshworks are of three primary types, namely: a meshwork of rods, Fig. Cancellous bone is an adaptation to compressive forces.

Bones are marvellously constructed to combine strength, elasticity and lightness in weight. Though the architecture of bone may be modified by mechanical forces, the form of the bone is primarily determined by heredity. According to Wolff's law Trajectory Theory of Wolff, , the bone formation is directly proportional to stress and strain. There are two forces, tensile force and compressive force. Both the tensile and compressive forces can stimulate bone formation in proper conditions.

The architecture of cancellous bone is often interpreted in terms of the trajectorial theory. Thus the arrangement of bony trabeculae lamellae is governed by the lines of maximal internal stress in the bone. Pressure lamellae are arranged parallel to the line of weight transmission, whereas tension lamellae are arranged at right angles to pressure lamellae. The compact arrangement of pressure lamellae forms bony buttress, for additional support, like calcar femorale Fig. Compression lamellae from upper part of the head resist compression forces Compression lamellae resist shearing stresses due to pull of muscles attached to greater trochanter Tension lamellae from lower part of the head resist bending forces in the neck Calcar femorale resists shearing stresses between the neck and shaft Fig.

Skeleton I 39 II. Microscopically, the bone is of five types, namely lamellar including both compact and cancellous , woven, fibrous, dentine and cement. Lamellar bone: Most of the mature human bones, whether compact or cancellous, are composed of thin plates of bony tissue called lamellae.

These are arranged in piles in a cancellous bone, but in concentric cylinders Haversian system or secondary osteon in a compact bone. Woven Bone: seen in fetal bone, fracture repair and in cancer of bone 3. Fibrous bone is found in young foetal bones, but are common in reptiles and amphibia. Dentine and 5. Cement occur in teeth. Table 2. Shaft: From without inwards, it is composed of periosteum, cortex and medullary cavity Fig. It is made up of an outer fibrous layer, and an inner cellular layer which is osteogenic in nature. Periosteum is united to the underlying bone by Sharpey's fibres, and the At the articular margin the periosteum is continuous with the capsule of the joint.

The abundant periosteal arteries nourish the outer part of the underlying cortex also. Periosteum has a rich nerve supply which makes it the most sensitive part of the bone. At birth the marrow is red everywhere with widespread active haemopoiesis. As the age advances, the red marrow at many places atrophies and is replaced by yellow, fatty marrow, with no power of haemopoiesis. Red marrow persists in the cancellous ends of long bones.

In the sternum ribs, iliac crest, vertebrae and skull bones the red marrow is found throughout life.


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  • دانلود کتاب اطلس آناتومی انسان : جلد اول استخوانشناسی · آرترولوژی و Syndesmology مایولوژی | کتاب.

The two ends of a long bone are made up of cancellous bone covered with hyaline articular cartilage Fig. Before ossification is complete the following parts of the bone can be defined. Epiphysis The ends and tips of a bone which ossify from secondary centres are called epiphyses.

These are of the following types. Examples: head of femur; lower end of radius, etc. It always provides attachment to one or more tendons which exert a traction on the epiphysis. The traction epiphyses ossify later than the pressure epiphyses. Examples: trochanters of femur and tubercles of humerus Figs 1. Examples: epiphysis at the head of the first metacarpal and at the base of other metacarpal bones.

Diaphysis It is the elongated shaft of a long bone which ossifies from a primary centre Fig. Metaphysis The epiphysial ends of a diaphysis are called metaphyses. Each metaphysis is the zone of active growth. Before epiphysial fusion, the metaphysis is richly supplied with blood through end arteries forming 'hair-pin' bends.

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This is the common site of osteomyelitis in children because the bacteria or emboli are easily trapped in the hair-pin bends, causing infarction. After the epiphysial fusion, vascular communications are established between the metaphysial and epiphysial arteries. Now the metaphysis contains no more end-arteries and is no longer subjected to osteomyelitis.

Skeleton I 43 4. Epiphysial Plate of Cartilage It separates epiphysis from metaphysis. Proliferation of cells in this cartilaginous plate is responsible for lengthwise growth of a long bone. After the epiphysial fusion, the bone can no longer grow in length. The growth cartilage is nourished by both the epiphysial and metaphysial arteries. Long Bones The blood supply of a long bone is derived from the following sources Fig.

Epiphysial arteries Epiphysial plate of cartilage Metaphysial arteries Periosteal arteries h Anastomosis between epiphysial and metaphysial arteries after fusion of epiphysis Fig. Hair-pin bends of- end arteries in the metaphysis before epiphysial fusion Nutrient a r t e r y — In lower limb, the lower end of femur and upper end of tibia are the growing ends. Lower limb Upper limb In miniature long bones, the infection begins in the middle of the shaft rather than at the metaphysis because, the nutrient artery breaks up into a plexus immediately upon reaching the medullary cavity.

In the adults, however, the chances of infection are minimized because the nutrient artery is mostly replaced by the periosteal vessels. Other Bones Short bones are supplied by numerous periosteal vessels which enter their nonarticular surfaces. In a vertebra, the body is supplied by anterior and posterior vessels; and the vertebral arch by large vessels entering the bases of transverse processes.

Its marrow is drained by two large basivertebral veins. A rib is supplied by : a the nutrient artery which enters it just beyond the tubercle; and b the periosteal arteries. Veins are numerous and large in the cancellous, red marrow containing bones e. In the compact bone, they accompany arteries in the Volkmann's canals.

Lymphatics have not been demonstrated within the bone, although some of them do accompany the periosteal blood vessels, which drain to the regional lymph nodes. Most of them are sympathetic and vasomotor in function. Conversion of mesodermal models into bone is called intramembranous or mesenchymal ossification, and the bones are called membrane dermal bones. However, mesodermal stage may pass through cartilaginous stage by chondrification during 2nd month of intrauterine life.

Conversion of cartilaginous model into bone is called intracartilaginous or endochondral ossification, and such bones are called cartilaginous bones Fig. Ossification takes place by centres of ossification, each one of which is a point where laying down of lamellae bone formation starts by the osteoblasts situated on the newly formed capillary loops. The centres of ossification may be primary or secondary. The primary centres appear before birth, usually during 8th week of intrauterine life; the secondary centres appear after birth, with a few exceptions of lower end of femur and upper end of tibia.

Many secondary centres appear during puberty. A primary centre forms diaphysis, and the secondary centres form epiphyses. Fusion of epiphyses with the diaphysis starts at puberty and is complete by the age of 25 years, after which no more bone growth can take place. The law of ossification states that secondary centres of ossification which appear first are last to unite. The end of a long bone where epiphysial fusion is delayed is called the growing end of the bone.

Bone grows in length by multiplication of cells in the epiphysial plate of cartilage Fig. Bone grows in thickness by multiplication of cells in the deeper layer of periosteum. Bones grow by deposition of new bone on the surface and at the ends. This process of bone deposition by osteoblasts is called appositional growth or surface accretion.

However, in order to maintain the shape the unwanted bone must be removed. This Skeleton I 47 process of bone removal by osteoblasts is called remodelling. This is how marrow cavity increases in size. For excellent details of all these points consult Modi Estimation of Skeletal Age Up to the age of 25 years, the skeletal age can be estimated to within years of correct age by the states of dentition and ossification, provided the whole skeleton is available.

In general, the appearance of secondary centres and fusion of epiphyses occur about one year earlier in females than in males. These events are also believed to occur years Bajaj et al, or years Pillai, earlier in India than in Western countries. Cancellous bone Secondary centre of ossification Mature bone Fig. Estimation of Sex Sex can be determined after the age of puberty.

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However, sexual dimorphism has been worked out in a number of other bones, like sternum Jit et al, , atlas Halim and Siddiqui, , and most of the limb bones. Estimation of Stature Height It is a common experience that trunk and limbs show characteristic ratios among themselves and in comparison with total height. Thus a number of regression formulae have been worked out to determine height from the length of the individual limb bones Siddiqui and Shah, ; Singh and Sohal, ; Jit and Singh, ; Athawale, ; Kolte and Bansal, ; Kate and Majumdar, Height can also be determined from parts of certain long bones Mysorekar et al , from head length Saxena et al, , and from foot measurements Charnalia, ; Qamra et al, CR length has been correlated with diaphysial length of foetal bones Vare and Bansal, and with the neonatal and placental parameters Jeyasingh et al, ; Saxena et al, Estimation of Race It is of interest to anthropologists.

A number of metrical like cranial and facial indices and non metrical features of the skull, pelvis, and certain other bones are of racial significance Krogman, ; Berry, Chondros G ; 2. Compare with the terms chondrification, chondrodystrophy, synchondrosis, etc. Skeleton I 49 Definition Cartilage is a connective tissue composed of cells chondrocytes and fibres collagen or yellow elastic embedded in a firm, gel-like matrix which is rich in a mucopolysaccharide.

It is much more elastic than bone. General Features 1. Cartilage has no blood vessels or lymphatics.

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The nutrition of cells diffuses through the matrix. Cartilage has no nerves. It is, therefore, insensitive. Cartilage is surrounded by a fibrous membrane, called perichondrium, which is similar to periosteum in structure and function. The articular cartilage has no perichondrium, so that its regeneration after injury is inadequate. When cartilage calcifies, the chondrocytes die and the cartilage is replaced by bone like tissue. Bone is hard Cartilage is firm 2. Matrix has inflexible material It has chondroitin providing flexibility called ossein 3.

Matrix possesses calcium salt Calcium salts not present 4. Bone has rich nerve supply. It does not have nerve supply. It is vascular in nature It is avascular in nature 5. Bone marrow is present Bone marrow is absent 6. Growth is only by apposition Growth is appositional and interstitial by surface deposition from within Types of Cartilage There are three types of cartilages: 1.

Hyaline cartilage Fig. Fibrocartilage Fig. Elastic cartilage Fig. It is characterized by three cardinal features: a Varying degrees of aplasia of the clavicles; b increase Fig. It may be hereditary or environmental in origin. It is transmitted as a Mendelian dominant character. Drilling into the compact bone without anaesthesia causes only mild pain or an aching sensation; drilling into spongy bone is much more painful. Fractures, tumours and infections of the bone are very painful.

Passing a metal pin into the medullary cavity hardly interferes with the blood supply of the bone. The fracture which is not connected with the skin wound is known as simple closed fracture. The fracture line may be a oblique or b horizontal. The fracture which communicates with the skin wound is known as c compound open fracture. A fracture requires "reduction" by which the alignment of the broken ends is restored Fig. Skeleton I 53 Healing repair of a fracture takes place in three stages: a Repair by granulation tissue; b union by callus; and c consolidation by mature bone.

If dens of axis gets separated from the body, it hits the vital centres in the medulla oblongata causing instantaneous death Fig. Even fracture of laminae may cause death. Rickets affects the growing bones and, therefore, the disease develops during the period of most rapid growth of skeleton, i. Osteoid tissue is formed normally and the cartilage cells proliferate freely, but mineralization does not take place.

This results in craniotabes, rachitic rosary at the costochondral junctions, Harrison's sulcus at the diaphragmatic attachments, enlarged epiphyses in limb bones Fig. Deficiency of calcium and vitamin D in growing children leads to widening of ends of bones with inadequate ossification. This condition is called as rickets Fig. Defective formation of the intercellular cementing substances and lack of collagen cause rupture of capillaries and defective formation of new capillaries. Haematoma in the muscles and bones subperiosteal cause severe pain and tenderness.

The normal architecture at the growing ends of the bones is lost. There may be protrusion of the meninges surrounding the spinal cord placed in the vertebral canal, i. The bones on X-rays examination do not reveal enough trabeculae. Deficiency of calcium in bones in old age leads to osteoporosis, seen both in females and males. Due to osteoporosis, there is forward bending of the vertebral column, leading to kyphosis Fig. Fracture of the bones of those areas may lead to injury to the nerve, leading to paralysis of muscles supplied including the sensory loss Fig.

Arthron G. Compare with the terms arthrology, synarthrosis, diarthrosis, arthritis, arthrodesis, etc. Articulatio L a joint ; articulation NA. Junctura L a joint. Syndesmology G. Definition Joint is a junction between two or more bones or cartilages. It is a device to permit movements. However, immovable joints are primarily meant for growth, and may permit moulding during childbirth. There are more joints in a child than in an adult because as growth proceeds some of the bones fuse together, e. Structural Classification 1.

Fibrous joints a Sutures b Syndesmosis c Gomphosis Cartilaginous joints a Primary cartilaginous joints or synchondrosis b Secondary cartilaginous joints or symphysis 3. Synovial joints a Ball-and-socket or spheroidal joints b Sellar or saddle joints c Condylar or bicondylar joints d Ellipsoid joints e Hinge joints f Pivot or trochoid joints g Plane joints B. Functional Classification according to the degree of mobility 1. Synarthrosis immovable , like fibrous joints Fig. Amphiarthrosis slightly movable , like cartilaginous joints Fig. Diarthrosis freely movable , like synovial joints Fig.

Synarthroses are fixed joints at which there is no movement. The articular surfaces arejoined by tough fibrous tissue. Often the edges of the bones are dovetailed into one another as in the sutures of the skull. Amphiarthroses are joints at which slight movement is possible. A pad of cartilage lies between the bone surfaces, and there are fibrous ligaments to hold the bones and cartilage in place. The cartilages of such joints also act as shock absorbers, e. Joints i 59 Fig. These ligaments are of elastic connective tissue. A synovial joint has a fluid-filled cavity between articular surfaces which are covered by articular cartilage.

The fluid, known as synovial fluid, produced by the synovial membrane which lines the cavity except for the actual articular surfaces and covers any ligaments or tendons which pass through the joint. Synovial fluid acts as a lubricant. The form of the articulating surfaces controls the type of movement which takes place at any joint.

The movements possible at synovial joints are: Angular flexion : decreasing the angle between two bones; -Capsule -Articular cartilage -Synovial membrane Male surface— Female surface— Fig. Rotary rotation : turning upon an axis; circumduction: moving the extremity of the part round in a circle so that the whole part inscribes a cone. Gliding one part slides on another. Skull type: immovable. Vertebral type: slightly movable. Limb type: freely movable. According to number of articulating bones 1. Simple joint: When two bones articulate, e. Compound joint: More than two bones articulate within one capsule, e.

Complex joint: When joint cavity is divided by an intra-articular disc, e. Joints i 61 The structural classification is most commonly followed, and will be considered in detail in the following paragraphs. Thesejoints are either immovable or permit a slight degree of movement. These can be grouped in the following three subtypes. Sutures: These are peculiar to skull, and are immovable.

According to the shape of bony margins, the sutures can be: i Plane, e. Neonatal skull reveals fontanelles which are temporary in nature. At six specific points on the sutures in new born skull are membrane filled gaps called "fontanelles". These allow the underlying brain to increase in size. Anterior fontanelle is used to judge the hydration of the infant. All these fontanelles become bone by 18 months Fig. Syndesmosis: The bones are connected by the interosseous ligament.

Example: inferior tibiofibular joint Fig. Gomphosis peg and socket joint. Example: root of the tooth in its bony socket Fig. These are of the following two types: 1. Primary cartilaginous joints synchondrosis, or hyaline cartilage joints : The bones are united by a plate of hyaline cartilage so that the joint is immovable and strong. These joints are temporary in nature because after a certain age the cartilaginous plate is replaced by bone synostosis. Examples: a Joint between epiphysis and diaphysis of a growing long bone Fig.

Secondary cartilaginous joints symphyses or fibrocartilaginous joints : The articular surfaces are covered by a thin layer of hyaline cartilage, and united by. These joints are permanent and persist throughout life. In this respect symphysis menti is a misnomer as it is a synostosis.

Typically the secondary cartilaginous joints occur in the median plane of the body, and permit limited movements due to compressible pad of fibro-cartilage such as in the pubic symphysis and manubriosternal joints. The thickness of fibrocartilage is directly related to the range of movement. Secondary cartilaginous joints may represent an intermediate stage in the evolution of synovial joints.

Examples: a Symphysis pubis b Manubriosternal joint c Intervertebral joints between the vertebral bodies Fig. Plane or gliding type Gliding movement B. Uniaxial joints 1. Hinge joint Flexion and extension 2. Pivot joint Rotation only C. Biaxial joints 1.

Condylar joint Flexion and extension, and limited rotation 2. Ellipsoid joint Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and circumduction D. Multiaxial joints 1. Saddle joint Flexion and extension, abduction, adduction, and conjunct rotation 2. Ball-and-socket Flexion and extension, abduction and spheroidal joint adduction, circumduction, and rotation Joints I 65 Characters 1. The articular surfaces are covered with hyaline articular cartilage fibrocartilage in certain membrane bones. Articular cartilage is avascular, non-nervous and elastic.

Lubricated with synovial fluid, the cartilage provides slippery surfaces for free movements, like 'ice on ice'. The surface of the cartilage shows fine undulations filled with synovial fluid. Between the articular surfaces there is ajoint cavity filled with synovial fluid. The cavity may be partially or completely subdivided by an articular disc or meniscus Fig. The joint is surrounded by an articular capsule which is made up of a fibrous capsule lined by synovial membrane. Because of its rich nerve supply, thefibrous capsule is sensitive to stretches imposed by movements.

This sets up appropriate reflexes to protect the joint from any sprain. This is called the 'watch-dog' action of the capsule. The fibrous capsule is often reinforced by : a Capsular or true ligaments representing thickenings of the fibrous capsule b The accessory ligaments distinct from fibrous capsule which may be intra or extracapsular. The synovial membrane lines whole of the interior of the joint, except for the articular surfaces covered by hyaline cartilage.

The membrane secretes a slimy viscous fluid called the synovia or synovial fluid which lubricates the joint and nourishes the articular cartilage. The viscosity of fluid is due to hyaluronic acid secreted by cells of the synovial membrane. Varying degrees of movements are always permitted by the synovial joints. Classification of Synovial Joints 1. Plane Synovial Joints Articular surfaces are more or less flat plane.

They permit gliding movements translations in various directions. Hinge Joints Ginglymi Articular surfaces are pulley-shaped. There are strong collateral ligaments. Movements are permitted in one plane around a transverse axis. Examples: a Elbow joint Fig. Pivot Trochoid Joints Articular surfaces comprise a central bony pivot peg surrounded by an osteoligamentous ring.

Movements are permitted in one plane around a vertical axis. Examples: a Superior and inferior radio-ulnar joints Fig. Joints I 67 Fig. Condylar Bicondylar Joints Articular surfaces include two distinct condyles convex male surfaces fitting into reciprocally concave female surfaces which are also, sometimes, known as condyles, such as in tibia.

These joints permit movements mainly in one plane around a transverse axis, but partly in another plane rotation around a vertical axis. Examples: a Knee joint Fig. Ellipsoid Joints Articular surfaces include an oval, convex, male surface fitting into an elliptical, concave female surface. Free movements are permitted around both the axes, flexion and extension around the transverse axis, and abduction and adduction around the anteroposterior axis. Combination of movements produces circumduction. Typical rotation around a third vertical axis does not occur.

Examples: a Wrist joint Fig. Saddle Sellar Joints Articular surfaces are reciprocally concavoconvex. Movements are similar to those permitted by an ellipsoid joint, with addition of some rotation conjunct rotation around a third axis which, however, cannot occur independently. Examples: a First carpometacarpal joint Fig. Intra-articular disc Squamotympanic fissure Tympanic plate Ball-and-Socket Spheroidal Joints Articular surfaces include a globular head male surface fitting into a cup-shaped socket female surface.

Movements occur around an indefinite number of axes which have one common centre. Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial rotation, lateral rotation, and circumduction, all occur quite freely. Examples: a Shoulder joint b Hip joint Fig. Terminology and Definition Human Kinesiology: Study of geometry of surfaces and their associated movements. Male surface: An articulating surface which is larger in surface area and always convex in all directions Fig.

Female surface: An articulating surface which is smaller and concave in all directions Fig. Simple joints: Joints with only two articulating surfaces, i. Compound joints: Joint possessing more than one pair of articulating surfaces. Degrees of freedom: Number of axes at which the bone in a joint can move. Uniaxial: Movement of bone at a joint is limited to one axis, i. Biaxial: With two degrees of freedom, e.

Multi-axial: Three axes along with intermediate positions also, e. Movements and Mechanism of Joints A. Angular movement: Movement leading to diminution or increase in angle between two adjoining bones. They are of two types: Talocalcaneonavicular joint Subtalar joint Fig. Circumduction: When a long bone circumscribes a conical space.

Rotation: Bone moves around a longitudinal axis. Shape of Articular Surface The common shapes of the articular surface are: a Ovoid: When concave-female ovoids. When convex-male ovoids. Mechanical Axis of a Bone and Movement of a Bone It is a reference point around which joint mechanics can be studied and around which the most habitual conjunct rotation occurs. Spin: Simple rotation around the bone's stationary mechanical axis.

Swing: Any other displacement of the bone and its mechanical axis apart from spin is termed a swing. Ovoid of motion: This represents the imaginary surface which would include all possible paths of a point on the mechanical axis at some distance from its related joint. Cardinal swing: When the mechanical axis moves in the shortest pathway when bone moves. Arcuate swing: When the mechanical axis moves in the longest pathway along with the bony movement. Co-spin: When the effect of adjunct rotation is additive to the rotation. Anti-spin: Adjunct rotation which has a nullifying effect on rotation.

Basic components of movements of the synovial joints are: 1 Spin, 2 Sliding, and 3 Rolling. Spin: It occurs around a fixed mechanical axis. During sliding movement, the mechanical axis of the joint and both ends of a moving bone move in the same direction. The transverse axis of movement is not fixed and it undergoes gliding or translation or linear movement. Rolling: In rolling movement, one end of the mechanical axis moves in a particular direction and the other end moves in opposite direction. The transverse axis of movement is almost fixed.

The resultant movement is rolling along an arc. Rolling and sliding occur together in knee joint. Joint Positions Close packed position: When the joint surfaces become completely congruent, their area of contact is maximal and they are tightly compressed. In this position fibrous capsule and ligaments are maximally spiralized and tense; no further movement is possible; surfaces cannot be separated by disruptive forces; articular surfaces are liable to trauma Table 3.

Table 3. Joints I 75 Loose packed: All other positions of incongruency. Examples: Least packed position. Shoulder - semiabduction Hip - semiflexion Knee - semiflexion Ankle - plantar flexion. Synovial fluid, secreted by synovial membrane, is sticky and viscous due to hyaluronic acid a mucopolysaccharide.


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